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Reduced-Order Modeling for Battery Thermal Behavior

The Future of Transportation: Sustainable and Energy Efficient Solutions


Transportation is a vital aspect of our modern society. However, as the world becomes more conscious of the impact of climate change and the need for sustainable practices, the future of transportation lies in finding energy-efficient solutions. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are at the forefront of this revolution, offering a promising alternative to traditional fossil fuel-powered vehicles. However, one key concern with EVs is the charging infrastructure and the speed at which they can be recharged.

The Challenge: Charging Infrastructure

Fast charging is essential for electric vehicles as it allows for shorter charging times and increased driving ranges. However, fast charging involves a large power supply, which means a significant amount of current is passed through the battery cells. This high current passage causes heat generation due to resistance and other internal losses. As the temperature increases, so does the thermal gradient within the battery.

The Importance of Thermal Management

Thermal management is crucial for the optimal performance and longevity of the battery. A minimum thermal gradient is essential for the battery's safety, smooth functioning, and longer life. Matos provides tools to simulate and analyze this thermal gradient, which helps in better designing the batteries.

Reduced Order Modeling for Battery Thermal Analysis

Battery degradation and temperature have an exponential relationship. The major impacts of temperature gradients inside the battery cell include inhomogeneous current, uneven aging, accelerator degradation, localized heating, and uncertain temperature monitoring. Matos offers a solution by providing reduced order modeling for battery thermal analysis.

Simulating and Analyzing Thermal Gradient

In order to analyze the temperature gradient within the battery cell, Matos combines two distinct capabilities: system-level simulation and finite element analysis. Finite element analysis from the PDE Toolbox is used to create a reduced order model of the battery's thermal behavior. This model is then passed for system-level simulation using SimScape for further analysis.

Workflow and Demonstration

To demonstrate the process, data from a research paper on reduced order models for thermal analysis is used. The link to the paper can be found in the description. The workflow starts with a partial differential equation that governs the thermal behavior of the battery system. The finite element modeling from the PDE Toolbox is used to generate the system that solves this equation. The equation is then reduced to an adequate order for system-level simulation. Several physical and chemical properties are taken into consideration during this process.

System-Level Simulation and Results

The reduced order model generated by the finite element analysis tool is then passed to SimScape for system-level simulation. The simulation provides insights into the temperature distribution across the battery cell. The high-level SimScape model showcases individual components such as the battery and charger, which have various parameters that can be experimented with. The simulation results include temperature against time, temperature at the top and bottom of the cell, and the maximum temperature difference in the cell over time.

Utilizing the Results

The simulation results can be used for experimental validation and further improvements. Geometrical descriptions can be enhanced, physical cooling plates can be added, electrochemical modeling can be incorporated, and scaling up the battery pack can be explored. Matos provides tools such as the PDE Toolbox, SimScape Electrical, and Battery Modeling for algorithm development and exploring the battery thermal analysis workflow.


The future of transportation lies in sustainable and energy-efficient solutions, and electric vehicles are leading the way. However, the charging infrastructure and battery thermal management remain key challenges. Matos offers tools and solutions for simulating and analyzing the thermal gradient within battery cells. By leveraging system-level simulation and finite element analysis, Matos enables better battery design and optimization. Explore their toolbox and courses to start your journey in battery modeling and algorithm development.

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